Horse skeleton structure
The horse is one of the first wild animals tamed by man. For many millennia, it helps to survive on earth. And any person must know the internal structure and features of the skeleton of a horse.
The skeleton of a horse consists of 252 separate bones, which are connected to each other in a certain order. Each bone is covered on the outside with a dense leathery shell – the “periosteum.” The bone is penetrated by the blood vessels that feed it, while the nerves are concentrated in the periosteum.
1 Vertebral column = 54 vertebrae (7 cervical, 18 thoracic, 6 lumbar, 5 sacral (growing) 18 caudal (average)).
2 Chest = 37 bones (18 pairs of ribs and one sternum).
3 Skull = 34 bones (including 3 auditory ossicles in each of the two cavities of the middle ear).
4 Thoracic limbs = 40 bones (including 3 sesame-shaped bones in each limb).
5 Pelvic limbs = 40 bones (including 4 sesame-shaped bones in each limb).
Bones are composed of organic substances (characteristic of the body, – the body) and mineral substances (typical of minerals – stones).
Minerals give the bone the necessary hardness, and organic matter imparts some elasticity to the bone, without which the bones would be too fragile and would be at risk of fracture if the animal were hit or dropped.
The body receives mineral substances necessary for bone formation from food and drink. Hence, the important importance of the content in the feed and the drinking of a sufficient amount of lime and other mineral substances is clear.
The bones of the skeleton are connected to each other either motionless, through the so-called seams, or movably in the form of joints. In the latter case, the articular ends of the bones are covered with a layer of cartilage. Two such ends of the bones are fastened, like a sleeve, by the “purse” ligament. Very often, one, two or more lateral tendon ligaments are attached to the purse ligament.
The bones that make up the skeleton are very diverse in appearance, shape and size.
The bones of the head for the most part have the form of plates, more or less curved. Connecting with each other through seams, they form protected cavities in which important organs are placed. So, in the skull is the brain, the organ of hearing, in the eye socket – the eye, in the oral and nasal cavities – the beginning of the digestive and respiratory tract, etc.
From the skull, along the neck, back and lower back there are bones connected in series – the vertebrae forming the spinal column, or the spine. It distinguishes: 7 vertebrae of the cervical, 18 – dorsal and 6 – lumbar.
The large openings in each vertebra, when connecting the vertebrae, merge into a long vertebral canal containing the so-called spinal cord.
The immediate extension of the spine is the sacral bone, consisting of several fused vertebrae and, finally, a series of caudal vertebrae that form the basis of the tail.
From the eighteen dorsal vertebrae, 18 ribs go down from the right and left, which, with the help of intermediate dense, half-ossified, cartilage, are connected below with the sternum. The ribs are curved bone plates, turned with their bulge outwards and backwards. Thus, a bone cell is obtained, bounded from above by the dorsal vertebrae, from the sides by ribs, from below by the sternum and intermediate cartilage. This cell, called the chest, limits the “chest cavity”, which is narrow in its front part and squeezed from the sides, and widens in the back as a round bell. In the chest cavity are placed: lungs, heart, large blood vessels, blood vessels pass through it , digestive tract and various nerves.
The pelvis bones fused into the whole bone come off from the sacral bone. Their connection with the sacral bone is dense, slightly mobile. In this way, a second bone ring is formed, embracing the pelvic cavity, which is limited: from the top – the sacral bone, from the sides – the ilium and below – pubic and ischial bones. In the pelvic cavity is part of the genital and urinary organs and part of the intestines.
The space between the chest and the pelvis only on top has a bone support from the lumbar vertebrae, and on the sides and below it is closed by the abdominal muscles. This space, adjacent in front to the chest and back to the pelvic cavities, is called the abdominal cavity and contains part of the urogenital organs and most of the digestive organs.
To the described part of the skeleton, which forms the basis of the head and body, two more pairs of legs, or limbs, are attached. The forelimbs are made up of: Shoulder, Shoulder bone, Radial and ulnar bones, Eight wrist bones, Metacarpal bone with 2 slate, Feral bone with 2 sesamiform, Coronary bone, Hoofed bone with shuttle.