The Caspian breed is very ancient, possibly the oldest breed in Asia.
The Caspian (or Mazenderan) horse, probably the oldest in Asia, is found on the frescoes of the Persians as early as 1200 BC. e. These horses are extremely rare, on the verge of extinction, for a long time it was believed that they became extinct. In 1960, there were about fifty of them, due to the fact that they are scattered over a large area, it is difficult to talk about their thoroughbredness.
Even before the Romans built the first of their famous roads for marching armies, the Persians did their best to build wide and straight dirt roads (they were constantly kept in order for couriers with urgent messages and regularly visiting their provincial heads).
Herodotus notes: “There is no one in the world faster than these Persian couriers. The Persians have a courier service, supported by a chain of stations with ready-made transfer horses. And nothing will stop these riders when they need to cover the prescribed distance as quickly as possible: neither snow, nor rain, nor heat, nor darkness. ”
As you can see, the Persian Empire simply needed reliable ground transportation. And the Persians became the first people to engage in horse breeding in order to breed the strongest and fastest breed possible. And the fact that, by modern standards, these horses were of very small stature, a miniature golden chariot (possibly a toy or a votive offering), which was part of the so-called Amudarya treasure, clearly demonstrates.
Alas, the graceful miniature horses so valued in the Persian Empire (they were even depicted on the bas-reliefs of Persepolis) practically disappeared from the pages of history: during the Tatar-Mongolian, and then the Arab conquest, many libraries and monuments were preserved that retained mention of the equestrian art of the Persians. After 700 A.D. almost nothing was said about the Caspian horse.
For a very long time no one knew about this breed. Thanks to one American girl, Louise Firouz, in 1965, people learned about this breed. Once she was riding past one of the lawns and noticed several dozen small horses of this breed, they were not far from the Caspian Sea. They have no height taller than a normal pony, they themselves are miniature horses, but not ponies.
The Caspian horse is one of the most beautiful breeds of the Ancient World. Without a doubt, this breed is the embodiment of the fourth type of horse. The description of the fourth type fully coincides with the characteristics of the Caspian horse.
The find of the Caspian horse played a huge role in studying the history of the genus Equus. It was thanks to her that scientists discovered that the Caspian breed is a direct ancestor of Arabian horses. The Caspian horse is the most archaic of the existing horse breeds, possibly directly descending from a wild Asian horse. The Caspian breed is very different from modern breeds: the main difference is in the line of the shoulder blades, in the rather unusual structure of the parietal bones of the skull, which betray the dark part of the head in a convex shape, in the additional molar on the upper jaw.
But this is a real horse, albeit a miniature one. The head of the Caspian horse is short, the skin on the head is thin and pleasant to the touch, reminiscent of the skin of an Arabian horse. The muzzle is small and tapering to the nose. Wide nostrils and large eyes. The ears are very short. The limbs are short, but very strong and strong. Hooves do not need a horseshoe. The body is narrow, so this horse is very convenient for teaching children how to ride. The tail is high up and up, like an Arabian horse. Modern Caspians outnumber their ancestors.
The Caspian breed of horses at that time was very rare, although today there are not so many of them that can be found. This is only due to the fact that they are very difficult to breed. (for example, in this breed of filly there is never ovulation during the year after childbirth). At the moment, a society of Caspian horses is in Australia, England, the USA and New Zealand.
The height at the withers of the Caspian horse is no more than 103 – 123 cm. They are very versatile, they are used both in harness and under saddle. The Caspian horse is very hardy, playful, and also has a good and kind character.
They are distinguished by a short, well-shaped head with a wide forehead, large eyes and short ears. The muzzle is small, with large, low-set nostrils. In general, the horse gives the impression of a graceful, well-built: she has a straight back, slanting shoulders, a wide withers and a high tail. A characteristic feature of the Caspian horse: strong legs and very strong hooves.
The Caspian horse is exceptionally hardy. Even shoeing it is required only in rare cases (only if she has to constantly work on very hard or rocky ground).
Interestingly, in some individuals there are practically no horny parts on the limbs: chestnuts and spurs.
The Caspian horse is characterized by a complaisant and kind character, it is very smart. For all its vigor, such a horse is non-aggressive: even children can calmly ride stallions. It has a smooth gait…