The creation of a thoroughbred horse
The creation of a thoroughbred horse (English) breed of horses began under King Charles II and is associated with large changes in the entire horse breeding. He was a passionate racer. It was during the reign of Charles II that horse racing began to be regularly held in the vast meadow of Newmarket, not far from the royal stud farm. From then until now, Newmarket has remained the center of purebred horse breeding in England.
Competitions were held at a distance of 4 to 6 miles. Horses from six years of age and older took part in them with the required weight of a jockey with a saddle of 76 kg. Prizes were awarded in two rounds, which required great endurance from the horse. Large prizes were called the Royal Chalices. These were expensive silver goblets of great value.
Under Charles II, eastern stallions began to be imported in order to raise the growth of horses. Unlike Europe, where massive horses filled numerous cavalry regiments and squadrons, in England they understood that cavalry and speed were inseparable. And the speed could give a light horse, without excess weight, consisting only of muscles and tendons. An Arabian horse met these requirements: thin legs, a small head, broken-off tendons, blood vessels secreted under the skin, and not a gram of excess fat. However, of the 180 eastern stallions imported into England, only three had a significant impact on the formation of a thoroughbred horse breed – Burley Turk, Darley Arabian and Godolfin Arabian.
Burley Turk was taken as a trophy during the siege by the Turks of Vienna and received his name by the name of its owner, Captain Burley. It was a tall, dry and thoroughbred stallion of dark bay color.
In 1704 a four-year-old, exclusively pedigree, harmonious build, with a small head bay bay stallion Darley Arabian, was bought in Syria. Later, France acquired Godolfin Arabian, a Karak stallion with an irregular exterior (from the portraits of that time), which had previously belonged to the Tunisian Bey and then donated to the French king.
These stallions were widely used for breeding with local uterus, mainly “half-blood” from the eastern stallions. The mares, dubbed the royal queens, formed the tribal core underlying the creation of the thoroughbred riding horse …
As a result of the factory work, three of the founders of the breed, outstanding stallions – bay Matchem (born in 1748), bay Herod (born in 1758), and ginger Eclipse (born in 1764) were received. The pedigrees of all modern thoroughbred riding horses ascend to them in a straight male line. These stallions are direct descendants of Darley, Burley and G’odolfin.
Eclipse (which means “eclipse”) was born on April 1, 1764, on the day of the solar eclipse, for which he received his nickname. It was a large stallion, distinguished by a strict character and galloping in a long, steady gallop. Eclipse, who became the “horse of the pitch,” won 11 Royal Chalices. According to jockey John Okley, Eclipse did not know the whip, did not know the spurs and did not know the loss. In six races, Eclipse could not pick up a worthy company, and he had to ride alone, without rivals. After living 25 years, Eclipse left a large and valuable offspring. Among them – 344 race winners, including three Derby winners. His daughters became excellent factory queens. Currently, most purebred horses on the male line lead their pedigrees from Eclipse. (you read the article Horse Riding)
In the XVIII century. The import of Oriental horses into the country continued – Arab, Turkish, and Barbarian.
The barbarian horse appeared presumably in the 7th century, when the Arabs, having conquered Numidia, brought with them huge herds mixed with the Numidian. Thus, the barbaric breed comes from the ancient Numidian, famous during the Punic Wars of Carthage with Rome (the famous Numidian cavalry of Hannibal). The barbarian horse is distinguished by endurance, extraordinary strength of the back and legs, undemanding to feed. “Barbara horses are considered the best by their extreme agility, good growth, and unspeakable strength of the back and legs,” noted one of the books published at the end of the 18th century. True, the forms of the barbarian horse are not as harmonious as the Arabian ones. In the XI century. the barbarian horse came to Spain, where it left a noticeable mark. From it originate the old Spanish breed and its modern descendants – Andalusian in Spain and Louisiana in Portugal.
Paying tribute to the barbarian horse, it should be noted its great role in the creation of the English purebred breed. Among 174 eastern stallions, whose blood joined the new breed, barbarian stallions (47 animals) along with Arabian (50 animals) occupied the main place. Mares of the barbarian breed were also imported.
Even higher than the barbarian and Spanish (Andalusian) horses were valued in the XVII century. Turkish But speaking of them, it should be noted that under this name Europe at that time included not only purely Turkish, but also Persian, Turkmen and even Arab horses.